This is a small manual of
iptables, I’ll show some basic commands, you may need to know to keep your computer secure.
This is going, list the default table “Filter”.
Edit: You may prefer to use
iptables -L -vn to get more information, and to see ports as numbers instead of its names.
List rules in specific table
iptables -L -t nat
You can also list the other tables like: mangle, raw and security. You should consider reading a bit more about tables. You can do it in the Tables section in the man page of
Delete all rules
Delete specific table liket nat
iptables -t nat -F
Specify chain policies
iptables let’s you configure default policies for chains in the filter table, where INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT, are the main ones (or at least the most used). Users can even define new chains.
These aforementioned chains, are better explained in this graph that comes from Wikipedia.
You can see the original image here
iptables -P INPUT DROP iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT iptables -P OUTPUT DROP
You can define the default policy as ACCEPT and then deny specific traffic, or define default policies as DROP and then open specific traffic to and/or from your box. The last one is more secure, but require more job.
Block IP traffic from an specific IP or Network.
Block from an IP
iptables -A INPUT -s 220.127.116.11 -j DROP
If you want to block only on an specific NIC
iptables -A INPUT -s 18.104.22.168 -i eth0 -j DROP
Or an specific port
iptables -A INPUT -s 22.214.171.124 -p tcp -dport 22 -j DROP
Using a Network and not only one IP
iptables -A INPUT -s 126.96.36.199/24 -j DROP
Block traffic from a specific MAC address
Suppose you want to bloc traffic some a MAC address instead of an IP address. This is handy if a DHCP server is changing the IP of the maching you want to protect from.
iptables -A INPUT -m mac --mac-source 00:11:2f:8f:f8:f8 -j DROP
Block a specific port
If all you want is to block a port,
iptables can still do it.
And you can block incoming or outgoing traffic.
Block incoming traffic to a port
Suppose we need to block port 21 for incoming traffic:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 21 -j DROP
But if you have two-NIC server, with one NIC facing the Internet and the other facing your local private Network, and you only one to block FTP access from outside world.
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth1 -p tcp --destination-port 21 -j DROP
In this case I’m assuming eth1 is the one facing the Internet.
You can also block a port from a specific IP address:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 188.8.131.52 --destination-port 21 -j DROP
Or even block access to a port from everywhere but a specific IP range.
iptables -A INPUT p tcp -s ! 184.108.40.206/24 --destination-port 21 -j DROP
Block outgoing traffic to a port
If you want to forbid outgoing traffic to port 25, this is useful, in the case you are running a Linux firewall for your office, and you want to stop virus from sending emails.
iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --dport 25 -j DROP
I’m using FORWARD, as in this example the server is a firewall, but you can use OUTPUT too, to block also server self traffic.
Log traffic, before taking action
If you want to log the traffic before blocking it, for example, there is a rule in an office, where all employees have been said not to log into a given server, and you want to be sure everybody obeys the rule by blocking access to ssh port. But, at the same time you want to find the one who tried it.
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j LOG --log-prefix "dropped access to port 22" iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j DROP
You will be able to see which IP tried to access the server, but of course he couldn’t.
Tips and Tricks
iptables executes the rules in order, if you want to change something you need to insert the rule in the specific position, or the desired effect is not going to be achieved.
List rules with numbers
iptables -nL --line-numbers
This is going to list all your rules with numbers preceding the rules. Determine where you want the inserted rule and write:
List specific chains
iptables -nL INPUT
Will list all INPUT rules.
iptables -nL FORWARD
Will list all OUTPUT rules
iptables -I INPUT 3 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT
That is going to add a rule in position 3 of the “array”
iptables -D INPUT 3
That is going to remove the rule inserted above. You can also remove it, by matching it.
iptables -D INPUT -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT
Delete flush all rules and chains
This steps are very handy if you want to start with a completely empty and default tables:
iptables --flush iptables --table nat --flush iptables --table mangle --flush iptables --delete-chain iptables --table nat --delete-chain iptables --table mangle --delete-chain
NOTE: do not execute this rules if you are connected via ssh or something similar, you may get locked out
Simple scripts for specific needs
How to stop brute force attacks
You can also use
iptables to stop brute force attacks to your server, for example: Allow only three attempts to log through ssh before banning the IP for 15 minutes, this should let legitimate users to log to the servers, but bots will not be able. Remember to always use strong passwords
iptables -F iptables -A INPUT -i lo -p all -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -p all -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport www -j ACCEPT iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m recent --set iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 900 --hitcount 3 -j DROP iptables -P INPUT DROP
How to NAT with
iptables is also very useful to configure NAT routers, a Linux mashing can act as a router, and share its public IP with a private networks behind it. It is also useful to configure the DHCP in the same server.
To configure a NAT router, you will be better with a server with two NICs, let’s suppose you have:
- eth0: 220.127.116.11
- eth1: 10.1.1.1
Now configure NAT to forward all traffic from 10.1.1.0 network through eth0 IP. You may want to empty all tables and start with a fresh chains and tables (see how above).
iptables --table nat --append POSTROUTING --out-interface eth0 -j MASQUERADE iptables --append FORWARD --in-interface eth1 -j ACCEPT
That is it, you only have to enable kernel forwarding now:
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
I recently had to resize the partition we use on our secure FTP server. Luckily, we use LVM on all our machines, so this was a simple task. My only concern was that it was a LUKS encrypted partition, I was afraid I would loose data due to the encryption algorithms and keys changing based upon the new size. After searching around, Here are the steps I came up with to resize a LUKS partition without loosing any data:
Assumptions and beginning info:
We have a LUKS filesystem named “encrypted” that is on alogical volume named “encrypted_LV”
The “encypted_LV” belongs to a volume group named “root_VG”
We are mounting this filesystem at /secret
We are using ext3 as the underlying filesystem
We want to extend the volume by adding 20 Gig from our root_VG volume group (It was already available as free space).
1. Unmount the filesystem:
2. Run a filesystem check to clean up the inode tables before working with it:
fsck.ext3 -C 0 -f /dev/mapper/encrypted
3. Close out the LUKS filesystem:
cryptsetup luksClose encrypted
4. Extend the Logical Volume like you would any other LVM (We are adding additional 20G of space):
lvextend -L +20G /dev/root_VG/encrypted_LV
5. Re-open the encrypted filesystem and resize it:
cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/root_VG/encrypted_LV encrypted
cryptsetup --verbose resize myfs
6. FSCK again (for good measure) and then resize the underlying filesystem (ext3 in this example):
fsck.ext3 -f /dev/mapper/encrypted
7. Mount up the newly sized LUKS filesystem and make sure everything is OK:
mount /dev/mapper/encrypted /secret